美国J-1签证详解

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j-1签证是一种非移民签证,签发给来美国参加美国国务院批准的“交流访问者计划”(exchange-visitorprograms)的各类外籍人士,目的是提供美国和其它国家之间的教育和文化交流的机会,以增进彼此了解,促进国际合作,发展国与国之间的友好关系。

j-1签证有多种类别,各类j-1签证持有人可以在美国停留的时间也各不相同,从6个月至5年不等。通过参加j-1交流访问计划,外籍人士不仅可以获得所需的知识或技能,还能够提高自己的英语水平,感受美国的先进理念和文化。

j-1交流访问者签证包含多种类别,适用范围相当广泛。具体来说,j-1签证主要包括以下12大类别:

1.j-1学生(student,college/university/secondary)签证

j-1学生签证又可以按照学生所在学校的类别分为j-1高中学生和j-1学院/大学学生。j-1高中学生必须符合一定的年龄要求,且必须参加全日制学习。要注意的是,j-1高中学生不能获得美国高中的毕业文凭。j-1学院/大学学生没有严格的年龄限制,但也须参加全日制学习。j-1学院/大学学生可以参加有学位的学习(degreeprogram)、无学位的学习(non-degreeprogram)或学术性实习(academictraining)。

2.j-1短期访问学者(short-termscholars)签证

此类签证适用于赴美从事以下活动不超过一定期限的短期访问学者:

b.考察(observation);

c.交流意见;

d.接受培训;

在研究机构、博物馆、图书馆、高等公认教育机构或类似的机构展示特殊技能。

3.j-1受训人员(trainees)签证

j-1签证受训人员签证适用于从事以下活动的人员:为提高自己专业及非专业上的技能或增进自己对美国先进技术的了解而赴美参加培训;为了更好地理解美国的文化及社会,或为了通过与美国相关人士之间的交流来促进美国对别国文化的了解,赴美参加培训。经过美国国务院(dos)批准的j-1培训交流计划涵盖了多个行业,如:艺术与文化、信息媒体与通讯、教育、社会科学、图书馆管理学、咨询、社会服务、管理、贸易、商业、财政金融、航天、农业、渔业、林业等等。但要注意,国务院也禁止j-1培训交流计划以某些行业的工作为内容,如:旅馆办事员等。

4.j-1教师(teacher)签证

j-1教师签证适用于:前往美国,在美国的公立或私立初级教育机构(需经美国官方认可)授课的教师;前往美国,在美国的公立或私立中级教育机构(需经美国官方认可)授课的教师。

申请此类签证的人员需要有相关工作经验和良好的声誉及品格,并且需要在美国进行全日制授课。

5.j-1教授(professor)签证

获得此类签证的人员所从事的活动应该是:在经美国官方机构认可的高等院校、博物馆、图书馆或其它类似机构授课、演讲、考察(observation)或交流意见。j-1教授也可以在担保人不反对的情况下对相关研究进行指导。

6.j-1研究学者(researchscholars)签证

此类签证适用于:在研究机构、公司研究部门、博物馆、图书馆、经美国官方机构认可的高等院校或其它类似机构主要对研究进行指导、考察(observation)或就与研究相关的问题交流意见的j-1人员。研究学者也可以在资助人不反对的情况下授课或进行演讲。

7.j-1专家(specialists)签证

此类签证适用于符合以下情况的人员:拥有某一专业知识或专业技能;前往美国从事考察(observation)、交流意见或展示其专业方面的学识或技能不属于以下人员:教授、研究学者、短期访问学者、参加研究生医学学习或实习的外籍医师。

8.j-1医师(alienphysicians)签证

此类j-1签证允许外籍医学类毕业生前往美国参加研究生医学学习或实习,或在美国从事考察(observation)、交流意见、授课及研究等活动。但此类签证的申请人,即外籍医师,必须满足一定的教育及文化背景要求,并通过美国特定机构的测试。

9.j-1国际访问者(internationalvisitors)签证

此类签证只适用于极少数人员。j-1国际访问者项目适用于那些被美国国务院认为有潜力成为领导人的外籍人士,他们被国务院选中从事以下活动:参加考察旅行(observationtours)、出席研讨会和专门会议、交流意见、参观工厂,以及旅游。j-1国际访问者必须由美国国务院选定,并且拥有一定的专业知识或技能。

10.j-1政府访问者(governmentvisitors)签证

此类签证只适用于少数人员。这些人需要被美国联邦、州或地方政府机构认为具有影响力或极为杰出,并由该政府机构选中参加以下活动:参加考察旅行(observationtours)、出席研讨会和专门会议、交流意见、参观工厂,以及旅游。j-1国际访问者必须由美国国务院选定,并且拥有一定的专业知识或技能。

11.j-1夏令营顾问(campcounselors)签证

此类签证允许已经年满18岁的外籍人士前往美国充当夏令营的顾问,监督参加夏令营的美国青少年的活动,并从中了解并学习美国文化,但不允许他们在夏令营充当行政管理人员、炊事人员或提供乏味的体力劳动(如洗盘子、看门等)。

12.j-1换工住宿者(aupairs)签证

j-1换工住宿者签证允许其持有人入境美国,与美国家庭共同居住,在限时看护儿童并在美国高中就读的同时体验美国家庭生活。换工住宿者计划参加者可以参加该计划的一个分支——教保计划(educareprogram);该计划允许换工住宿者减少每周看护儿童的小时数,更好地参加学术性学习。j-1换工住宿者必须符合一定的年龄要求和学历要求,并且顺利通过背景调查。j-1换工住宿者在为接受家庭看护孩子,只需要完成一定时间的看护工作即可,并可以据此获得报酬。

j-1签证的三大好处:

1.无名额限制。

由于h1等工作签证有名额限制以及美国高学历等条件要求,获得这类签证越来越难。而j-1签证则没有名额限制,而且申请起来也不很困难,因此,对于那些很难获得工作签证的专业人员来说,申请j-1是前往美国的一个好途径。

2.适用范围广。

j-1签证最大的优点便是包含了多种类别,它的适用范围非常之广,包括了留学、培训、工作、旅行观光等多个方面。各类j-1签证的停留期限各不相同。因此,外籍人士在申请j-1签证时往往可以有多种选择来进行比较,以便获得最满意的结果。

3.签证成功率高。

相对而言,申请j-1签证要比申请其它很多签证特别是f1签证要简单得多——由于美国对部分j-1签证设立了回国居住两年的要求,因此,j-1签证申请人较少被怀疑有移民美国的倾向。这一点尤其有利于那些希望去美国留学或去美国参加工作的人。

以下用美国大学资助(sponsor)的j-1访问学者为例,说明一些有关事项。在申请签证之前,申请者需要一封邀请信。这封信要明确说明该访问学者参加的是什么研究项目,谁是合作者或指导者,谁提供科研经费,谁负责生活费用等。

邀请单位要随信附上一份ds2019表,填上访问学者的姓名,性别,出生年月日,出生城市,出生国家,职业,访问时限,专业领域编码(比如信息技术领域是11。0103),研究领域说明(比如进行信息技术学术研究),在美访问期间总花费,以及谁将提供这些费用。所有持j-1签证的访问学者及其随行家属(持j-2签证)在美期间都必须有健康、事故、及医疗保险。访问学者到达美国后,必须首先带着收到的ds2019表,护照,,以及i-94表到邀请单位的外事办公室报到。

原创文章,版权所有。转载请注明:转载自熊猫美国签证 [ http://www.usaqianzheng.com ],违者必究。

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